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Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis

Bilharzia (schistosomiasis, bilharzia) - a tropical parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Dermatitis is characterized by a period of the introduction of parasites in the skin and the subsequent development of fever, intoxication, urticaria, splenomegaly, eosinophilia, intestinal lesions, or urinary tract. The clinical picture in schistosomiasis is caused mainly by the development of immunnoallergicheskoy response to parasite eggs.

causative agent of the disease - schistosome worms .

General characteristics of schistosomiasis

disease is caused by parasitic worms - simeystva of trematode Schistosoma .

Man is the final carrier of the parasite, the intermediate vector can be freshwater gastropods (snails), the same final media can be birds and animals.

Shistosomoz infection lechenie If you get

schistosome eggs into the water out of them miracidia (small worms) that penetrate the tissue shellfish and undergo further development. Clam out free-cercariae (adult schistosomes) in the skin of humans, animals or birds. Shistosomatidy for which definitive hosts are animals or birds are killed in human skin, causing a primary dermatitis. Shistosomatidy genus Schistosoma, parasitic in humans, as a result of active movement and tissue lysis penetrate into the bloodstream and migrate to the venous plexus of the gastrointestinal tract or bladder, where the females begin to lay eggs.

In 2006 according to the WHO (World Health Organization) were infected with 200 million people. Now this figure has increased - infected more than 400 million people. And the ability to have infected at more than 900 million people in more than 74 countries worldwide.

Schistosomiasis affects mostly people engaged in agriculture and fishing. Women using a homework water contaminated with parasites, such as laundry, are also at risk. Especially children are vulnerable to infection because of their habits related to hygiene and games.

the north-east of Brazil and Africa, refugee movement and migration to urban areas contribute to the penetration of the disease to new areas. Population growth and, consequently, the need for energy and water often leads to the development of such schemes, and changes in the environment, which also contribute to the transmission of infection.

With the development of eco-tourism and travel in the "neizbitye places" an increasing number of tourists are infected with schistosomiasis, sometimes severe acute infection and unusual symptoms, including paralysis.

Most

falling ill live in poor areas of developing countries without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Children are especially vulnerable to infection in many parts of infected much of the school-age children.

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis are toxic and allergic reactions caused by glands in the implementation of the secrets of parasites and waste products and the collapse of worms. In the epidermis around the places the introduction of cercariae developing edema with lysis of the cells of the epidermis. During migration of the skin larvae emerge infiltrates of lymphocytes and leukocytes.

Clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis

Shistosomy in kishechnike

for 10-15 minutes in a place where it was made in the implementation of human skin there is intense itching, hives sometimes, and during the day there is transient blotchy rash. When re-infection of the skin on the first day develops mottled pappuleznaya rash with severe itching, continuing up to 5 days.

In 1-2 months after infection with schistosomes develop acute schistosomiasis or Katayama fever. The disease is characterized by sudden onset, fever for 2 weeks or more, a dry cough, urticaria appearance, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, ESR acceleration.

intestinal schistosomiasis can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood in the stool. In advanced cases, there is hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), which is often associated with the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and the abdominal hypertension blood vessels. In such cases, there may also be an enlarged spleen.

classical sign of urinary schistosomiasis is haematuria (blood in urine). In advanced cases often develop fibrosis of the bladder and ureters and kidneys are affected. A possible complication is in the final stages of bladder cancer. Women urogenital schistosomiasis may lead to impairment of the genitals, vaginal bleeding, pain during intercourse and education sites on the external genitals. In men, urinary schistosomiasis can lead to the development of the pathology of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. This disease can have other long-term irreversible consequences, including infertility .

Schistosomiasis has a significant impact on the economy and health. Children schistosomiasis can lead to anemia, stunting and reduced learning ability, in spite of the fact that usually, during the treatment effects of the disease are reversible.

disease "Schistosomiasis" affects a person's ability to work and delays in the development, and in some cases can lead to death.

diagnosis

standard methods of diagnosis: diagnosed by checking stool and urine with a microscope.

for diagnosing urinary schistosomiasis is a standard method of filtration using nylon, paper or polycarbonate filters. Children with S. haematobium almost always have blood in urine, visible under a microscope. It can be detected with a chemical reagent strip.

to identify communities at high risk of infection, and thus the identification of priority areas for action, you can also conduct a survey of children for the presence of blood in their urine.

To identify eggs

intestinal schistosomiasis in stool samples can be applied technique which uses methylene blue cellophane, impregnated with glycerol or slides.

But keep in mind that you can only detect the parasite during the breeding season. In other periods of schistosome reveal extremely difficult. Also, detection accuracy is less than 60%.

Additionally

methods are used indirect immunofluorescence with schistosome antigens. But these techniques do not allow to distinguish active parasitism of the disease, as well as revealed their cross-sensitivity with other parasites.

ART Diagnosis: if you have vomzonzhost get to a doctor who deals with diagnosis using ART (vegetative resonance test) you can sign up to see him, as with the ART Diagnostics can establish an accurate diagnosis, and parasite can be detected at any stage of its development. And the accuracy of the test is over 95%.

Prevention and Treatment

Under the prevention of schistosomiasis is meant fighting with snails (gastropods), and improved health status. In tropical countries - restriction on swimming in natural bodies of water, as infection can occur even when walking barefoot in the water .

standard treatment:

World Health Organization pursues a strategy of targeted treatment with medication drugs, even given the fact that they can lead to complications. Also treatment of schistosomiasis with the tablet form implies a regular treatment of all people at risk.

rarely resorted to surgery - with complications (stenosis of the ureter).

Treatment with devices Deta.

using devices Deta treatment of schistosomiasis on average takes from 1 week to 2 months, depending on the degree of destruction of the body of data parasites.

C given problem copes well antiparasitic device Deta-AP . Its efficiency is achieved by wave therapy, which resulted in the parasite dies, this phenomenon is called " bio-resonance", for more details about the equipment and the phenomenon of "bio-resonance" can be found on our website under "Production" and "Articles"